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While on-board observer programmes have played an important role in adequately describing, monitoring, and eventually reducing bycatch in some large-scale offshore fisheries,

small scale coastal fisheries present a greater challenge for observation and monitoring, mall scale coastal fisheries present a greater challenge for observation and monitoring.

 

Artisanal fishery vessels, especially those in developing countries or remote areas, are too small to accommodate a traditional observer. 

Monitoring bycatch in small scale coastal gillnet fisheries, is notoriously challenging, due to the inability to place observers on small vessels, and the difficulty of verifying information provided by fishers during interviews.

 
 
 

For them, resources can be scarce and new technologies difficult to implement.

Up until now, support and assistance to artisanal fishers have focused on improving practices and management, but often ignores commercial viability and profitability.

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Additionally, gillnets

A high proportion of small scale coastal fisheries revolve around the use of large-mesh gillnets, which can be set from small vessels with small crews in a wide variety of water depths and marine and coastal habitats.

However, gillnets are associated with high levels of bycatch of non-target, high conservation value species like marine mammals and turtles.

Gillnets are one of the least discriminating types of fishing gear, and are the gear most often associated with marine mammal bycatch.*

 
 
 
*Reeves, R. R., Mcclellan, K. & Werner, T. Marine mammal bycatch in gillnet and other entangling net fisheries, 1990 to 2011. Endangered Species Research 20, 71-97, doi:10.3354/esr00481 (2013). Rojas-Bracho, L. & Reeves, R. R. Vaquitas and gillnets: Mexicos ultimate cetacean conservation challenge. Endangered Species Research 21, 77-87 (2013). Northridge, S. P., Coram, A., Kingston, A. & Crawford, R. Disentangling the causes of protected-species bycatch in gillnet fisheries. Conservation Biology, 28 (In press).
 

Existing technologies are focused on vessel monitoring and not on verifying the origin of seafood products.

 

Remote Electronic Monitoring (REM) systems have been developed in the US and Europe, and have had moderate success in using recorded video to monitor the volumes of non-target fish bycatch as fish are sorted on board. 

However, these systems were deemed less successful for monitoring cetacean by-catch due to their positioning, and less suited to artisanal fisheries in developing countries due to their high cost and the need to have dry space on board for computers and battery backs and computers, and high-speed 3G-4G networks for transmission of real-time data.*

 
*Scheidat, M. & koningson, S. Workshop on Remote Electronic Monitoring with Regards to Bycatch of Small Cetaceans. 13 (ASCOBANS, The Hague, Netherlands, 2015).

While not suitable for artisanal fisheries, when stakeholders have worked together to reduce bycatch in largescale commercial fisheries, there have been many success stories.

 

The placement of observers on tuna purse seine vessels operating in the Eastern Tropical Pacific was critical to the process of accurately describing, monitoring, and ultimately reducing dolphin bycatch in that fishery.**

Similarly – marine turtle bycatch has been effectively reduced in shrimp fisheries around the world through the use of observers, and the implementation of turtle-excluder devices on shrimp trawlers.

 
Brewer, D. et al. The impact of turtle excluder devices and bycatch reduction devices on diverse tropical marine communities in Australia's northern prawn trawl fishery. Fisheries Research 81, 176-188, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.07.009 (2006). *Gilman, E. L. Bycatch governance and best practice mitigation technology in global tuna fisheries. Marine Policy 35, 590-609 (2011). Hall, M. A. An ecological view of the tuna--dolphin problem: impacts and trade-offs. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 8, 1-34 (1998).
 
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